In evolution of eukaryotic cells organisms with a nucleus may have evolved as long ago as 35 billion years, but how the first nuclear membrane arose remains a mystery. Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally different from those of bacteria and archaea at almost every level of organization, starting with their physical size these major differences in cellular architecture formed the original basis for the prokaryotic–eukaryotic dichotomy.
The endosymbiotic theory is the accepted mechanism for how eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells first published by lynn margulis in the late 1960s, the endosymbiont theory proposed that the main organelles of the eukaryotic cell were actually primitive prokaryotic cells that had been engulfed by a different, bigger prokaryotic cell. The origin and evolution of eukaryotes edited by patrick j keeling, canadian institute for advanced research, university of british columbia, and eugene v koonin, national center for biotechnology information, national library of medicine, national institutes of health eukaryotic cells are fundamentally different from those of bacteria.
The endosymbiotic theory is the accepted mechanism for how eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells learn more the endosymbiotic theory is the accepted mechanism for how eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells learn more endosymbiotic theory search the site go animals and nature evolution history of life on earth basics.
14) the evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved a) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria b) anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen-the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have striking similarities to bacteria cells they have their own dna, which is separate from the dna found in the nucleus of the cell and both organelles use their dna to produce many proteins and enzymes required for their function.
The origin of the eukaryotic cell is a milestone in the evolution of life, since eukaryotes include all complex cells and almost all multicellular organisms the timing of this series of events is hard to determine knoll (2006) suggests they developed approximately 16–21 billion years ago. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotes, and the dna is linear and found within a nucleus eukaryotic cells boast their own personal power plants, called mitochondria these tiny organelles in the cell not only produce chemical energy, but also hold the key to understanding the evolution of the eukaryotic cell.
As life on earth started to undergo evolution and become more complex, the simpler type of cell called a prokaryote underwent several changes over a long period of time to become eukaryotic cells eukaryotes are more complex and have many more parts than prokaryotes. Eukaryotic cells boast their own personal power plants, called mitochondria these tiny organelles in the cell not only produce chemical energy, but also hold the key to understanding the evolution of the eukaryotic cell.
There is no fossil record recording the evolution of the eukaryotes so most hypotheses have been inferred from studying the biology of modern organisms perhaps the most significant difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, if we want to understand the origin of the later, is that prokaryotes are inclosed in a rigid cell wall. Some of the oldest cells on earth are single-cell organisms called bacteria fossil records indicate that mounds of bacteria once covered young earth some began making their own food using carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and energy they harvested from the sun this process (called photosynthesis) produced enough oxygen to change earth's atmosphere. Eukaryotic cells seem structurally far more complex than their prokaryotic counterparts (from which they arose), so biologists generally believe that many evolutionary steps must have separated.