Social isolation in youth may wreak havoc on the brain by disrupting a protein crucial to the development of the nervous system's support cells, new research finds a new study in mice finds that when the animals are isolated during a crucial early period, brain cells called oligodendrocytes fail to mature properly. Research in rhesus monkeys and humans has shown that social isolation during childhood has an array of nasty and lifelong effects, from cognitive and social problems in neglected children to.
Harlow subjected newborn rhesus macaques to appalling isolation—months spent in cages in the company only of “surrogate mothers” made of wire with cartoonish monkey heads and bottles attached luckier monkeys had that and cloth-covered versions of the same thing to cuddle. In the 1960s, harry harlow developed an experimental model that took spitz’s studies even further in a series of experiments that might be considered cruel today, harlow took monkeys just a few hours after birth and raised them for 3, 6, or even 12 months in complete isolation from any other monkeys, including their mothers.
Harlow also found that monkeys kept in isolation wound up “profoundly disturbed, given to staring blankly and rocking in place for long periods, circling their cages repetitively, and mutilating.
One was made out of wire with a wooden head and contained a bottle for the monkey's nourishment the other was made of soft foam and covered in cuddly cloth but did not have a bottle with this setup, harlow attempted to separate the two things the monkey gets from its mother: nourishment and comfort. However, such deficits produced by isolation rearing 529 procedures did not significantly enhance the social performance of their isolation-reared subjects taking a related approach, sackett (1966) and pratt (1969) exposed infants to slides of other monkeys during their tenure of isolation.
Isolation effects were measured by comparing the social behaviour of pairs of isolated monkeys after release from the chambers with that of pairs of equal-aged monkeys raised in partial isolation they would place the two monkeys in a play room for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 32 weeks. Partial isolation involved raising monkeys in bare wire cages that allowed them to see, smell, and hear other monkeys, but provided no opportunity for physical contact total social isolation involved rearing monkeys in isolation chambers that precluded any and all contact with other monkeys. Harlow had already placed newly born monkeys in isolation chambers for up to one year with the pit of despair, he placed monkeys between three months and three years old in the chamber alone, after they had bonded with their mothers, for up to ten weeks within a few days, they had stopped moving about and remained huddled in a corner.
Researchers used field data from 2012 to 2015 to study mortality and allele frequency changes in the sea star pisaster ochraceus during a mass mortality event in northcentral california, and found that surviving adult and juvenile sea stars experienced 81% mortality and allele shifts, according to the authors.